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The NPP Unit 3D Engineering Model-Based Application

07.10.2011

Club 3D. Innovative ingineering design

Vitaliy Kononov, Vladislav Tikhonovsky, Pavel Novikov, Nikolay Salnikov

The scope of tasks for the maintenance and repair services of nuclear power plant (NPP) is extremely wide. Many of these tasks due to difficulties with their formalization and influence on the process of planning and execution of the mass of engineering and organizational factors are considered to be poor realizable in classical information systems of strictly deterministic process (transaction) type. To perform such kind of tasks by operation, engineering and repair services there is a necessity to have a complete engineering and radiation database concerning NPP unit along with implemented specialized software in areas of activities of workshops and services of the NPP.

Applied aspects of use of 3D engineering models are inextricably linked to the presence of relevant and reliable information, as there is no practical sense to visualize or process unreliable information by means of 3D engineering models. Therefore, in most of subsequent sections the review of 3D engineering models application includes their integration with the applicable at NPP operation informational system (automated system) (IS (AS) and/or automated identification technology.

Automated identification technology provides actuality and reliability of the operational information collected and received by staff of nuclear power plant, and also an access to this information in a location of a specialist near a controlled/handled NPP unit’s part.

Automated identification technology consists of two parts. The first part is represented by a marking of the NPP element by bar-code or radio frequency marks containing a unique station (workshop) identifier of the element. The second part is represented by application of mobile computing devices in the industrial version, equipped with the optical mark readers. These devices are equipped with touch-sensitive screens of high resolution, have a long time of off-line operation, large memory capacity which is able to contain all the necessary information on the NPP power unit, including even the 3D models and design documentation. With such devices a specialist, having read the bar-code or radio frequency mark from the control, can access to necessary information, instructions, manuals, etc., repeatedly improving the quality and performance of the work. Herewith identifier of a specialist as well as date and time of reading the label shall be fixed. Thus, it is precisely known, at least about the fact that a specialist is located close to the control object.

Control of the walk round checks, mobile access to information, visualization of NPP power unit elements’ conditions

Fig. 1. Display of fire barriers inspection results
Fig. 1. Display of fire barriers inspection results

At nuclear power plants there is a steady statutory monitoring of the current conditions and parameters of systems, equipment and other NPP elements. Control of the conditions and parameters of elements which are not covered by the automated technological process control system, is provided by the personnel of workshops and operational services. As a rule, to date such control is made in the form of walk round checks by personnel who handle the control objects, and is followed by fixation of their parameters in the appropriate paper or electronic journals by a specialist in the workplace after walk round end. In this form of control it is quite difficult due to a «human factor» to guarantee reliability and actuality of the information received.

On the other hand, for the head of a service/workshop it is quite problematic to monitor steadily the performance of statutory inspections/walk round checks by subordinate staff as existing at NPP electronic, and moreover paper forms of fixing and reporting require a long time needed to study them because of the large amount of contained records (the number of reporting elements can be calculated in thousands).

The combined use of 3D engineering models along with automated identification technology will allow solving specified problems effectively. 3D models of NPP unit (allow to the head of a workshop/service to display on a computer screen the NPP elements controlled by him (process equipment, piping welds, fire barriers, etc.), which are dynamically painted in different colors while receiving the information about the results of statutory inspections. A head of a subdivision can observe two main features – the fact of completion/non-completion of statutory inspections by personnel, as well as the current parameters and conditions of equipment, collected by the personnel upon the results of walk round checks.

An example of such information reporting on a 3D engineering model is shown in Fig. 1, which displays an array of fire barriers in the context of the architectural and construction part of the NPP power unit, which are in three colors:

  • Green — statutory walk round check is completed and the normal conditions are recorded.
  • Yellow — walk round check is not completed timely.
  • Red — walk round check is completed and damage/destruction is recorded.

Fig. 2 shows, on example of turbine-generators oil facilities, a visual representation of equipment information, collected during statutory inspection. Examples of NPP elements marking are shown in Fig. 3.

The process of statutory walk round check/inspection with the use of automated identification is as follows:

  1. Before starting the inspection a specialist is identified in the terminal of data collection (TDC) or industrial tablet computer (ITC), indicating the username and password. Identification procedure of a specialist in the TDC/ITC is mandatory, and without it a specialist cannot read bar-code/radio frequency marks and consequently he cannot input information to the TDC/ITC. This technology ensures a clear personal responsibility of specialists who perform work to control the condition of the NPP power unit elements.
  2. While inspection a specialist performs with TDC/ITC reading of bar-code/radio frequency marks from the NPP elements (premises, equipment, welds, etc.). In this case the TDC/ITC decodes the read code and determines the class (type) of the element and identifies its specific exemplar which is associated with this code.
  3. After decoding and identification of the element’s exemplar, the TDC/ITC shall provide to a specialist with an access to information about changing the controlled parameters of the equipment in the past, and allow entering the current values of controlled parameters. In this case the TDC/ITC fixes an identifier of a specialist, who completed inspection, values of controlled parameters, date and time of inspection.
  4. After completion of walk round check, a specialist shall set TDC/ITC in a special docking station attached to his personal computer. Information from the TDC/ITC automatically can be transferred to the information system, where there shall be carried out its analysis and processing.

The functionality of an automated identification can be realized both within the planned implementation if the information system on operation support (with use of TDC), and in expanded form within the implementation of informational database (IDB) 3D NPP (with the use of specialized TDC and ITC).

Applications to this technology are statutory walk rounds and monitoring the current condition of:

  • process equipment, valves, piping;
  • elements of engineering and support systems (ventilation, canalization, water supply, etc.);
  • objects of materials control – (metal, welds and weld metal for vessels, collectors, pipelines and other equipment operating under pressure);
  • the elements of fire protection system (fire barriers, fire doors, etc.);
  • Electrical Control & Instrumentation (EC&I);
  • radiation levels;
  • building structures, etc.

Completion of statutory measures on maintenance and repair

Fig. 2. 3D-Representation of equipment operational condition
Fig. 2. 3D-Representation of equipment operational condition

Planning and execution of scheduled activities on maintenance and repair of NPP elements can be efficiently supported in information field by using of 3D engineering models along with the automated identification technology and information system of maintenance and repair. Possible areas of use:

  • Visualization, on 3D models of NPP unit, of schedules for regular preventive and major repairs on the power unit for setting goals, optimizing schedules of top-level execution and control. Plans for the repairs of the first to the third level can come from a system of maintenance and repair or project management system such as Primavera.
  • Detailed planning on the 3D model and optimization of the complex repairs sequence in certain areas based on the schedules of the third to the fifth level. While this visual planning it can be effectively determined the availability of work sites, the availability of spare place to accommodate the dismantled equipment, forestry and material-handling machinery, other space-time collisions are also allowed.
  • Demonstration of approved detailed plan of works to repairmen in visual format through a 3D engineering model in a job site.
  • Presentation of sequence of equipment assembly/disassembly, parts substitution, performance of preventive maintenance to repairmen in a job site by means of interactive technical manuals. Such presentation can be carried out in a job site both on specially installed TV screens of high definition and on mobile ITC. These interactive technical manuals can be developed on the basis of 3D engineering models.
  • Providing access in electronic form in the job site to the required engineering and technical information about the objects of repair and maintenance work (design documentation, data on equipment, its elements, etc.).
Fig. 3. Examples of bar-code marking equipment
Fig. 3. Examples of bar-code marking equipment

In the last two variants automated identification is used for identification of repair objects on a site to get an access to the detailed plans of works, interactive technical manuals for assembly/disassembly of elements and other necessary repair information. The same automated identification technology can be used both to fix the fact of the work and to control the sequence of their execution.

Engineering calculations

The presence of the actual 3D engineering model, integrated with operational IS (AS) data, such as, for example, materials control system shall allow performing at NPP various engineering calculations with the use of certified calculation codes. For example, calculations on the strength, hydrodynamic calculations, calculations of work time to failure, etc. Use of these approaches will facilitate the transition from a preventative maintenance and repair system to the system of maintenance upon condition which is currently considered to be more effective (Fig. 4).

For safe operation of nuclear power plant it is necessary to make calculations on stability to the seismic action. Having all the engineering and technical information about the elements of NPP unit, integrated into the IDB 3D of NPP, allows forming conclusions about the technical condition and reliability level of equipment in a vibration exposure.

3D models engineering models allow making gas-dynamic calculations and calculations of power/heat loss in the pipes and air ducts of ventilation systems.

Fig. 4. 3D model visualization of engineering calculations
Fig. 4. 3D model visualization of engineering calculations
Fig. 5. 3D model presentation of NPP turbine hall layout
Fig. 5. 3D model presentation of NPP turbine hall layout

Thus, the use of 3D models engineering models along with verified calculation codes will allow to NPP engineer staff to provide more accurate forecasts and as well as provide the instrumental base for modern approaches implementation on the NPP power unit aging management.

Training of maintenance and operational staff

3D models engineering models provide a framework for the introduction of progressive training methods of operating, maintenance and engineering staff. There such areas of application as follow:

  • Introducing of the topology and composition of NPP unit in general. 3D engineering models of NPP unit allow quickly to present information about the topology and composition of the NPP unit and the appointment of equipment systems and structures (Fig. 5).
  • Demonstration of technological processes on the 3D models. Modern software tools allow animating the static 3D model, providing visualization on its core technology and associated processes/operations dynamically. With such tools it is possible to create 3D animated models for staff training which demonstrate the processes/operations that occur in different operation modes of NPP power unit.
  • Interactive electronic technical manuals (IETR) which are a structured complex of interrelated technical data required for the operation stages and equipment maintenance. Using IETR allows providing in interactive mode reference and descriptive information about operational and maintenance procedures relating to specific product directly during these procedures by means of mobile computing devices or by stationary PC in advance in the workplace.
  • Training and simulation models generated on the basis of 3D engineering models, allow creating a virtual, managed by the user’s computer imitation of technological process or complicated repair/assembly/disassembly operations. These systems allow the user to manage processes and operations through interaction with the management elements of the simulated virtual consoles, as well as to manage virtual mockups (avatars) of staff and technical equipment (mechanical handling equipment, robotics, forestry, etc.). Virtual objects used in a simulation model must have properties and parameters, which are identical to real ones: kinematic, overall, the degree of freedom of the individual elements of the object, etc. The simulation models are moved in the virtual space, interact and wait for each other. Management analysis of imitation simulation models, mechanisms and staff is carried out. In the same time dose rates, volumes and categories of radioactive wastes (RW), labor costs and the cost of the repair work can be calculated according the chosen scenario. The use of various alternative technologies is being considered. Number of involved staff and mechanisms is fluctuated.

Such simulators and simulation models allow evaluating interactively the level of staff competence, to increase gradually the complexity of the tasks, to train and supervise the correctness of the staff’s actions in simulated emergency situations (Fig. 6). In the same time a scenario of performed activities and operations is formed and can be analyzed. Achieving the required level of accuracy of the trained specialist as well as the cohesion of the entire repair team can be one of the criteria for their admission to the repair work on a physical object.

Fig. 6. 3D model visualization of equipment replacement
Fig. 6. 3D model visualization of equipment replacement

The use of simulators and simulation models while the implementation of the repair work ensures an opportunity to optimize them by manipulating the sequence and scope of operations.

Integration of information on the radiation environment.

At the nuclear power plant there are various types of radiation monitoring: standard automated systems, manual radiation monitoring, individual, etc. At the same time, at the most nuclear power plants there is no unified structured storage of information about the radiation environment in the premises of NPP unit, which can unites all types of radiation monitoring and present its findings in a concise form for specialists.

Fig. 7. Measurement of the radiation environment with the use of data collection terminals
Fig. 7. Measurement of the radiation environment with the use of data collection terminals

One of the most important application of IDB 3D of NPP and 3D engineering models in its composition is their use for purpose of structured visual saving and visualization of information on the radiation environment along with automated systems of radiation monitoring and automated identification technology.

The information about the radiation environment comes into IBD 3D of NPP in the automated mode both out of standard radiation monitoring systems and manual dosimetry monitoring, carried out with using the TDC. At the same time to operate the system of manual data collection on radiation environment by means of TDC, there is a need to identify premises by bar-code marks. While reading the bar-code of a premise, premise plan is displayed on the terminal with points of manual dosimetry control. Used to record the parameters of the radiation environment TDC can be integrated with dosimeters. For registration of the parameters of the radiation background, radiation safety specialist shall place a dosimeter in the required point of the premise and select the same point on the premise plan on the TDC touch screen (Fig. 7).

Fig. 8. Display of the operational data of the radiation situation on the 3D of NPP unit
Fig. 8. Display of the operational data of the radiation situation on the 3D of NPP unit

After the measurement and verification by the operator, radiation measurement data on selected point are automatically stored in the TDC memory. During the walk round check it is possible to add new control points in the TDC. Upon completion of the walk round, information from the TDC is loaded into the IDB 3D of NPP.

Updated information about the radiation environment is visualized on a 3D model of NPP power unit (Fig. 8).

The point which is displayed on a 3D model is either a point of manual measurement or automated sensor of monitoring system. Appeal to this point on a 3D model will redirect the user in IDB 3D of NPP to the entire information on the controlled location, providing the possibility of trending, data filtering and other tools.

The application of represented approach is appropriate both during the operation stage, and on the stage of RE. The systematic accumulation of information about the radiation environment along with data on the equipment replacement will allow making automated calculation of radioactive waste volumes and the need of deactivation volumes.

Implementation of information functions of control and management system of fire protection (CMSFP).

Fig. 9. Example of marking a bar-code mark of the element of fire protection of NPP power unit
Fig. 9. Example of marking a bar-code mark of the element of fire protection of NPP power unit

Ensuring fire protection is a major task while operating NPP power unit. According to [1] on the NPP power unit CMSFP is to be implemented, which should ensure the implementation of informational and management functions.

CMSFP is developed to detect and extinguish fire in premises containing equipment of systems which are important for safety and systems of normal operation not affecting the safety, and also provides operations of divisions on fire protection. Additional requirements for CMSFP are identified in the documents [2-6].

The implementation of CMSFP functions requires processing of large amount of data on the elements of NPP power unit, consisting of dozens of parameters of premises, equipment, fire protection equipment and systems, as well as information on measures to be taken in case of fire.

IDB 3D of NPP represents the best way to implement the functions of CMSFP, because in addition to providing all necessary information, it provides a visual presentation of power unit topology, which is especially important for solving the issues of fire safety. IDB 3D of NPP and 3D engineering models needed for the CMSFP functions implementation can be used in the following areas:

  • Viewing on 3D models the attribute information of about the elements of NPP power unit (premises, obstacles, equipment, etc.) necessary for the planning measures on the fire protection and implementation of CMSFP functions. Display on 3D models of the CMSFP elements (detectors, elements, automatic fire extinguishing systems, etc.) with access to the attribute information of these elements. Generating reports on 3D models to view faulty CMSFP elements, according to information received from the system on maintenance and repair.
  • Search requests and display the elements of this search on 3D models. For example, visualization on a 3D model of the premises in accordance with fire danger rating or equipment accords to safety class.
  • Display on a 3D model of information about the fire growth in the premises of NPP power unit received from the CMSFP elements. In case of fire a 3D model can be used as an accessory tool for monitoring the fire situation in addition to the main CMSFP switchboards as well as provide an opportunity to obtain operative data on the premises characteristics, which are adjacent to the premise where the fire occurred.
  • Display of evacuation routes on 3D models for the selected premises of NPP power unit for training staff in case of fire.
  • Use of 3D models for planning and optimizing operations of fire protection brigade as well as for staff training in case of fire: discussion, planning and analysis of the escape route, exercising of actions of fire personnel for all versions of fire development and other potential dangers.
  • With the integration of 3D models with IS MR or duty systems requiring special access, it is possible to display on 3D engineering model of NPP equipment under repair and the estimated location of personnel, in accordance with the issued duties that will identify quickly the escape routes in case of fire.

To ensure objective control of the fire protection elements condition of NPP power unit it is also effective to apply automated identification technology and mobile computing devices – TDC, ITC. Example of marking of fire protection equipment is shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 10. Visualization of conditions of the fire protection equipment of specific type (fire barriers) upon results of walk round checks performed by staff
Fig. 10. Visualization of conditions of the fire protection equipment of specific type (fire barriers) upon results of walk round checks performed by staff
Fig. 11. Obtaining information about the fire characteristics of the NPP power unit premise through the 3D engineering model
Fig. 11. Obtaining information about the fire characteristics of the NPP power unit premise through the 3D engineering model

Example of visualization of the integral condition of fire protection equipment of special type is shown in Fig. 10. The figure in the context of a semitransparent display of architectural and construction of the reactor compartment of NPP power unit with VVER-1000 (water cooled reactor) represents the implementation status of statutory inspection of fire barriers by personnel: green – inspected according to the regulations, yellow – not inspected according to the regulations, red – inspected according to the regulations and fixed a defection that is not eliminated.

Fig. 11 shows the implementation of the CMSFP informational component in obtaining part through a 3D engineering model of information about the fire characteristics of the NPP power unit premise.

Fig. 12 shows the simulation of escape routes for staff in case of fire growth. The premise, in which there was a danger, is marked in red (the information is received from CMSFP sensors). Adjacent premises, where staff is located, are marked in blue (the information is received from duty systems requiring a special access).

Evacuation passage, which must be used to exit from the fire dangerous area, is marked in green (the information is received from the evacuation plan contained in CMSFP). The operative information on the fire characteristics, fire protection equipment, etc. concerning each premise can be quickly obtained. Such visualization will allow getting all necessary information to take decisions on fire elimination and evacuation.

Informational support of materials technology tasks

Fig. 12. Modeling and display of escape routes for the staff in case of fire
Fig. 12. Modeling and display of escape routes for the staff in case of fire

For safe operation of NPP power unit there is important information which is represented by reliable data on the conditions of metal, welds and weld metal of vessels, collectors, pipelines and other equipment operating under pressure. Volume of controlled welds at the NPP power unit reaches tens of thousands of inventory items and more. For nuclear power plants there are regulatory requirements [7] on the operational nondestructive inspection (NDI) by means of variety of methods.

A significant amount of information on the controlled metal condition accumulated in the process of NPP power unit operation, and the relationship of this information to the topology and configuration of the NPP power unit determines the use effectiveness of IDB 3D of NPP and 3D engineering models in its structure in order to store, systemize, process, analyze and visualize the results of nondestructive control of metal equipment and pipeline of NPP.

The main objectives of IDB 3D of NPP in this area:

  • Establishing a unified informational space of NPP and external organizations upon the results of testing of welded joints, main and weld metal and development of corrective actions to improve the reliability of equipment and pipelines.
  • Data accumulation and systematization.
  • Automation of process of forming working control programs.
  • Information support of the metal laboratory while planning and operating. Reports generation.
  • Operative providing information on the results of testing of welded joints, main and weld metal with the ability to analyze and filter information by the interested symptom.
  • Visual representation on 3D models of welded joints condition based on user-defined search criteria, visual access to information on the welded joints.
  • Automation of the information transfer from monitoring devices.

Example of using 3D engineering models to obtain information about the selected weld joint is shown in Fig. 13.

Information support of operation tasks of integrated cable system

Fig. 13. Display of attribute information on weld joint of pipeline on 3D engineering model
Fig. 13. Display of attribute information on weld joint of pipeline on 3D engineering model

The problem of monitoring the condition of integrated cable system is represented by search, identification and obtaining information about the selected cable or pass.

In the cable tray on the overpass rack there are jointly laid dozens of cables of varying capabilities. Determination along the way course of the cable belonging to a certain position in the cable journal is a difficult and time consuming task in case of unavailability a developed system of marking and tracing cables.

Using testers along the way route and on terminal boxes does not always give a quick search result. The search complexity of the required cable in the bunch sometimes causes failure of operating personnel to dismantle the out-of-function cable that leads to the accumulation of broken cables and a gradual overloading of internal space of a cable tray. There is also an increase of fire load of the existing cable route; there is a need for laying new boxes or trays.

Intermural and interfloor cable passes have a similar trend: it is sometimes easier to make a new pass in the wall than to remove an old unwanted cable from the existing one and to lay a new one in return. In addition to increasing the fire load and creating new passes there is a problem on the pass sealing, its inspection and maintenance while operation. Laying of new cable which runs alongside can break intermural passes sealing that can reduce the fire safety of the pass.

Marking of cables and cable passes for their identification, automated reading of bar-code mark by means of TDC or ITC on site, and showing cable traces on a 3D engineering model reduce the complexity of cable and cable passes maintenance. Automated identification of cables and cable passes along with IDB 3D of NPP shall provide:

  • Operative access to information about the cable ways, cables and passes (design documentation, data).
  • Removal of out-of-operation cables from the way.
  • Control of joint laying of cables of different functional area.
  • Visualization of cable ways trace and separate cables.
  • Registration and inspection planning of passes.
  • Visualization of the results of cables inspections and passes.
  • Automation of fire load calculation on the cable way.

Informational support on ventilation systems operation

Fig. 14. Display of air pipes layout of NPP power unit
Fig. 14. Display of air pipes layout of NPP power unit

Ventilation systems of NPP power unit provide acceptable climate conditions for staff work at different NPP regimes, prevent indoor and outdoor air pollution with radioactive substances, and maintain optimal operating conditions of technological equipment. Supply and exhaust, exchange and technological ventilation systems with mechanical drive are applied.

Branching of air pipes of ventilation systems in nuclear power plant is significant (Fig. 14). This fact along with the importance of data systems needed for safety, determines the efficiency of IDB 3D of NPP and engineering and 3D model of NPP power unit in integration with the system of automated identification of ventilation elements (equipment, air pipes, etc.) and along with standard automated ventilation control systems.

Application of such technologies while operation of NPP ventilation systems shall provide:

  • Operative access to infomation about the elements of the ventilation systems (documentation, data).
  • Displaying the placement of ventilation equipment (filters, shut-off devices, fans, etc.).
  • Displaying of air pipes traces indoors, on marks and NPP power unit shafts.
  • Preliminary preparation of MRO of ventilation systems due to accurate knowledge of the traces, layouts and dimensions of ventilation systems.
  • Visualization of on/off elements of ventilation systems.
  • Control of statutory inspection /walk round checks of ventilation systems. Visualization of the condition of the elements of ventilation systems upon inspection results made by staff.
  • Making of necessary engineering calculations

Informational support of I&C operation

Fig. 15. Reading bar-code mark from I&C equipment
Fig. 15. Reading bar-code mark from I&C equipment

I&C at nuclear power plants are characterized by a significant amount and spatial assignment in premises and equipment of NPP. Despite the appearance in recent time such EC&I generations that support remote determination of device status, the automatic diagnosis of the cause of device problem, and in some cases allow to standardize and to diagnose a device remotely at the operating NPP power units, now terminal blocks of I&C which require periodic maintenance and control by thermal automatics and measurements (TAM) specialists are still used.

In such circumstances it is quite effective to use IDB 3D of NPP along with automated identification technology (Fig. 15) to control the execution and visualization of the plan/fact of execution of maintenance activities, storing and displaying information on I&C systems and equipment. This technology shall provide:

  • Creation of interactive two-dimensional diagrams of I&C systems. Input of diagrams, data on the composition and attributive characteristics of the EC&I equipment displayed in the diagrams of the IDB 3D of NPP.
  • Display of I&C equipment on the 3D engineering model of NPP unit.
  • Marking of I&C equipment with bar-code/radio frequency marks.
  • Application of I&C for reading marks, identifying I&C equipment, receiving and entering information.
  • Visualization of EC&I indications as well as plan/fact of execution of I&C maintenance on a 3D engineering model of NPP power unit.

Information boards displaying the complex state of the NPP unit

Due to the accumulated information and wide potential of its 3D visualization on engineering models of IDB, NPP can ensure the realization of the ideology «visual state boards» of NPP unit in the following areas: radiation safety, fire safety, technical safety, and other state boards both directly for the NPP specialists and for technical managers of JSC «Concern Rosenergoatom».

Fig. 16. An example of a visual shield for the state of the radiation environment in premises of NPP
Fig. 16. An example of a visual shield for the state of the radiation environment in premises of NPP

To implement such boards, the NPP 3D engineering model is used, on which IDB 3D data on the relevant directions in the context of a semitransparent architectural and construction part of the NPP power unit should be visualized through the given and limited contrast range of colors (usually traffic light coloring is applied – red (danger), yellow (fault/suspense), green (normal) (Fig. 16).

Because IDB 3D of NPP may contain not only the current but also retrospective information, with help of state boards it is possible to assess the dynamics of changes in characteristics over time. Overlay of several state boards on the 3D model will identify the mutual influence of different processes and characteristics as well as define implicit common factors.

Visual boards which indicate top-level state should allow evaluating operatively and integrally the condition of NPP power unit in the chosen direction without excessive detalization. For example, for the board of radiation safety it is possible to color the contours of the premises, as shown in Fig. 20. For the board of fire safety it is possible to color the contours of the premises, or even more enlarged contours of fire compartments/zones of NPP power unit, integrally displaying the accurate information about the state of serviceability and readiness of active and passive fire protection equipment and systems.

For the board of technical safety it is possible to color 3D models of technological and engineering systems through aggregating IDB 3D information of NPP on the results of condition monitoring equipment, pipes and other system elements, visually with help of color displaying the average rate of technical security.

Improving the emergency preparedness level

To ensure emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants, the following activities performed:

  • training and exercising of NPP personnel actions concerning prevention of accidents;
  • exercising of mutual actions of NPP and civil defense and emergency situations CF&ES (CF&ES) personnel along with notification of mass media about the emergency situation;
  • development of mechanisms, ways and order of services notification – participants of emergency response, including local and federal authorities while spreading RW emission;
  • planning on the industrial site, in buffer and reliability margin area, escape routes for NPP personnel in case of emergency.

A list and description of the possible draft emergency situations, which may arise while operation of NPP power unit, are provided in the respective reports on detailed security assessment developed by the General design engineer or the chief constructor of NPP. Descriptions of accidents involve dozens or more NPP elements (equipment, pipelines, facilities, etc.), include a variety of their parameters; take into account different speed of accident development. Thus, it is quite problematic to reconstruct for the operational personnel the integrated picture of the potential emergencies flow which develops in the same time in several places of NPP power unit.

Potential of modern information technologies allows on the base of a 3D engineering model of NPP to create visual simulators of various kinds of emergencies. These simulators can provide a simultaneous display of multiple locations of NPP power unit, where the simulated accident occurs, representing the change of the important equipment characteristics and visualizing the radiation background in the premises, allow to the staff being trained to perform actions for preventing the emergency development. Thus, we can assess the level of training. In the simulators it is possible to set the desired time scale for a more careful study of fast emergency modes. Separately, in a class of similar interblock simulators, we can highlight simulators of emergency situations associated with the occurrence of fire at the nuclear power plant.

As a rule, simulators are implemented in two or more monitor configurations. For example, one of the monitors can display several types of power units, while the other one may reflect changes in the equipment characteristics and the virtual elements of management and indication to provide management actions (Fig. 17, 18).

Fig. 17. Demonstration of emergency development in dynamics simultaneously in several places of NPP
Fig. 17. Demonstration of emergency development in dynamics simultaneously in several places of NPP
Fig. 18. Training of operating personnel with the use of simulator
Fig. 18. Training of operating personnel with the use of simulator

The next class of simulators provides forecasting and simulation in the virtual space of possible emergency situations connected with radioactive emission into environment. Such simulators provide prediction of areas and directions of the pollution spreading, radiation dose rates in the territories of RW emission as well as definition of settlements, which may be affected by the accident, exercising scenarios on interaction of forces and resources for disaster recovery and evacuation of population in the surrounding areas and NPP personnel.

To ensure the simulating output of RW outside the NPP power unit in case of the accident there is a need to apply estimation codes based on models of the spread of gas and aerosol pollutants in the atmosphere, which predict the direction and velocity of RW spreading in ground air layers and value of RW fallout on the surface. Examples of such calculations are estimation codes created in the Institute of problems of nuclear power safe development of Russia Academy of Sciences. The results of calculationsare visualized on 3D models (Fig. 19, 20), reflecting the industrial site of power unit and the monitored area of NPP and allowing in relation to the timeline to view the development of an emergency (passing of a pollution cloud), as well as to exercise the processes of interaction between departments and services, to calculate required resources for evacuation of population, etc.

Fig. 19. Modeling of the emergency development an at the reliability margin area of NPP which displays 3D radioactive emission
Fig. 19. Modeling of the emergency development an at the reliability margin area of NPP which displays 3D radioactive emission
Fig. 20. Modeling of the interaction of services, departments and state offices on a simulation model
Fig. 20. Modeling of the interaction of services, departments and state offices on a simulation model

In accordance with a set of estimation scenarios and in accordance with climatic and weather conditions a set of models, that are used to train personnel and departments involved in the processes of an emergency elimination, is created.

Modeling of emissions spread on the simulation model allows evaluating of the following:

  • qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the RW emission into environment (direction and speed of spread, emission activity, dose power);
  • consequences of emission for the population (radiation dose, settlements suffered from radioactive pollution);
  • need for evacuation of population in the initial period of radiation accident (comparison of the calculated dose rates with the limits and characteristics of normal levels);
  • a list of recommendations for the public for their protection;
  • actions required by emergency services (population evacuation routes, ways of equipment delivery, locations of people and equipment);
  • situation around NPP in general in case of the accident;
  • work and the necessity to adjust the automated radiation monitoring system;
  • need to create tutorials and demos on the basis of this modeling.

Abbreviations

  • 3D – Three dimensional.
  • AS – Automated system.
  • ARMS – Automated radiation monitoring system (outside the site).
  • ATPCS – Automated technological process control system.
  • NPP – Nuclear power plant.
  • VVER– water-cooled power reactor.
  • VVER-TOI – water-cooled power reactor standard optimized informatized.
  • NPP PUD – NPP power units decommissioning.
  • CF&ES – Civil defense and emergency situations.
  • RCA – Radiation-control area.
  • IDB 3D NPP – Integrated database on the ground of 3D models of NPP power units.
  • IS – Informational system.
  • IETM – Interactive electronic technical manuals.
  • EC&I – Electrical Control & Instrumentation.
  • FP – Fire protection.
  • PC – Personal computer.
  • ITC – Industrial tablet computer.
  • RW – Radioactive wastes.
  • RS – Radioactive substances.
  • SPZ – Sanitary protection zone.
  • CMSFP – Control and management system of fire protection.
  • TAM – Thermal automatics and measurements.
  • MRO – Maintenance and repair operations.
  • DCT – Data collection terminal.

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