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Digital Decommissioning

Digital Decommissioning is a new software and hardware package that uses digital technology to decommission nuclear facilities efficiently. It is supported by building information modeling (BIM), computer-aided simulation, and virtual reality (VR).


Purpose of Digital Decommissioning

  • Develops, improves, verifies and visualizes of design and process solutions
  • Details technological processes of the equipment disassembling up to the level of unit operations
  • Obtains reliable evaluations of generated amounts of radiation waste
  • Generates up-to-date as-built documentation
  • Organizes the engineering and technical information about nuclear facilities systematically
  • Manages the information around decommissioning projects
  • Trains personnel

Users and Fields of Application

Decommissioning Operators: Comprehensive management of decommissioning processes, cost estimates, scheduling of priorities, liability analyses, and management of radioactive wastes

Operating Firms: Development of design and process solutions to assure a safe implementation of the decommissioning activities at minimum cost

Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: Compliance checking of decommissioning activities and radioactive waste management within required safety standards

Specialists and Contractors: Assures efficient and safe implementation of decommissioning activities and management of radioactive waste generated


Advantages of the Digital Decommissioning Package

  • Highly precise estimation of radwaste amount classified by specific activity, morphology, and reprocessing methods
  • Variants calculation of radiation fields dynamics considering sequence of the equipment and utility systems disassembling
  • Justified calculation of production and economic indicators of a decommissioning project: resources, time, dose rates, design and estimate indicators
  • Maximizes the safety of decommissioning activities
  • Combines personnel training with decommissioning project development

Functional Capabilities

Comprehensive Engineering and Radiation Survey (CERS)

  • Planning of buildings according to CERS to locate ionized radiation sources and placement of radiation measurements on 3D models
  • Supervision of work assignments, records of implementation progress, and indication of starts and ends with dynamic progress reports
  • Recording of survey data on-site using mobile clients
  • Organizing of data stored in CERS

Developing Decommissioning Concepts

  • Schedules the stages and orders of implementations for alternative approaches to decommissioning, based on the built-in Reference Book of Technological Processes and visualization of the progress in 3D models
  • Carries out assessments of the cost of alternatives decommissionings, based on industry recommended practices and fulfilling financial liabilities of the decommissioning
  • Compares technical and economic performance indicators of decommissioning alternatives
  • Stores data in a structured order by classifications
  • Creates safety assessment reports on the decommissioning

Decommissioning Designs

  • Creates detailed designs right up to the level of elementary process operations, and evaluates the needs for HR resources, tools, consumables, and radwaste containers
  • Optimizes the durations of activities with consideration of the radiation environment
  • Generates detailed design documentation to the level of process flow charts
  • Plans the management of radwaste, complete with predictions of radwaste amounts, processing sequences for handling radwaste, and calculating the cost to process radwaste
  • Visualizes the sequence of decommissioning activities in 3D models of the nuclear facilities
  • Exports data used for estimates

Personnel Training for Decommissioning

  • Teaches the structure of nuclear facilities, including element-by-element structure, ionizing irradiation sources, EDR maps in premises, and shows the order in which to dismantle equipment by means of a VR environment
  • Visualizes the implementation scenario in virtual environments
  • Generates a personnel training program, including testing of knowledge gained

Case Study: Kozloduy NPP Decommissioning Project

Facility

The Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant operates in Bulgaria at the Danube River, some 200 kilometers north of the country's capital of Sofia, and five kilometers east of Kozloduy, the town after which the station is named.

In 1966, the governments of Bulgaria and the former Soviet Union signed an agreement to cooperate on the construction of the Kozloduy plant. Construction began four years later as a joint project of Teploelektroproekt of Moscow and Energoproekt of Sofia.

In 1974, the station began operating with an output 220MWe of electrical power. The Soviet Union and later Russia supplied and handled the nuclear fuel. During the years of 1991 to 2002, the station grew to six power units with a total capacity of 3,760MWe, which covered 45% of country's need for electrical energy.

The Kozloduy plant currently manages two pressurized water reactors, with a total output of 2,000MWe. The older and smaller Units 1 to 4 were shut down by 2007. Units 5 and 6, constructed in 1987 and 1991, are VVER-1000 reactors. As part of a program to extend its life by 30 years, Unit 5 was in 2017 upgraded to a capacity of 1,100MWe. A seventh 1,000 MWe unit may be installed using a reactor from the terminated Belene project, for which Bulgaria paid €600 million.

When Bulgaria candidated for EU membership, it was required to satisfy EU conditions for nuclear plant safety, and so the first four nuclear power units will be decommissioned. The remaining two VVER-1000 reactor units (5 and 6) were successfully upgraded during 2005-2006, and so meet EU safety requirements.

Customer: State Enterprise Radioactive Waste (SE RAW), Republic of Bulgaria

Decommissioning: Russian-German consortium comprising of GC NEOLANT, JSC NIKIMT Atomstroy, NUKEM Technologies GmbH, and EWN GmbH

Period of implementation: 2016-2019

Interesting Facts

  • Kozloduy is the first nuclear power plant decommissioning in Europe to use information technology to support the back-end stage of nuclear power plant units, thereby increasing the economic and technical significance of the project.
  • This was considered the best BIM project of 2017, according to the II All-Russian Competition for BIM Technologies 2017, supported by the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation.

Goal

Project 44: Development of an equipment dismantling project in the controlled access areas of Kozloduy nuclear power plant, units 1-4

Fig. 1. As-built 3D model showing Units 1 through 4 of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant
Fig. 1. As-built 3D model showing Units 1 through 4 of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant
Fig. 2. Generating the equipment list for selected equipment on the premises of Unit 2, the Kozloduy NPP
Fig. 2. Generating the equipment list for selected equipment on the premises of Unit 2, the Kozloduy NPP
Fig. 3. Visualizing dose rate measurement points on the 3D model of Units 1 through 4, the Kozloduy NPP
Fig. 3. Visualizing dose rate measurement points on the 3D model of Units 1 through 4, the Kozloduy NPP

Results

  • Provided reliable estimates of the amount of radioactive waste generated
  • Acquired up-to-date as-built documentation
  • Systematically arranged and generated all required engineering and technical data at the decommissioning stage, taking into account the duration and turnover of staff
  • Improved and verified the design and process solutions under development
  • Prepared demonstration materials submitted for expert review
  • Created an integrated information database for future coordination, planning, and control of the contractor firms during actual decommissioning activities
  • Trained personnel from the contractor firms
  • Obtained actual data of the design and arrangement of the radioactive waste reprocessing facilities at units 1-4

Implementation

Stage 1. A radiation survey that included the following tasks in Building 1 and the reactor compartment of Unit 1:

  • Taking radiation surveys of all 150 rooms of Building 1 and of the reactor compartment of Unit 1
  • Making spectrometric examinations of all areas to update the existing nuclide vectors
  • Swiping samples from the surfaces of equipment in the premises
  • Undertaking gamma scanning of all areas

Stage 2. The development of 3D engineering and radiation models:

  • Laser scanning of 600 premises in Buildings 1 and 2 and the reactor compartments of Units 1 through 4
  • Digitizing 40,000 project and design documentation pages
  • Creating an as-built model of the 500,000 elements that make up the buildings and reactor compartments

Stage 3. Development of design documentation for dismantlement of systems and equipment of Building 1 and the reactor compartment of Unit 1

Fig. 4. Results of gamma-scanning an area of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant
Fig. 4. Results of gamma-scanning an area of the Kozloduy nuclear power plant
Fig. 5. Interactive analyses of elevation marks at the Kozloduy NPP
Fig. 5. Interactive analyses of elevation marks at the Kozloduy NPP
Fig. 6. Report of the inspection of the Kozloduy NPP premises
Fig. 6. Report of the inspection of the Kozloduy NPP premises
Fig. 7. Generating process flow charts of equipment dismantling in premises of NPP Kozloduy Unit 1
Fig. 7. Generating process flow charts of equipment dismantling in premises of NPP Kozloduy Unit 1

Learn More about Digital Decommissioning

The experts at NEOLANT are happy to consult with you on any issues surrounding the purchase and use of Digital Decommissioning:

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